Kufah, 5 years ago
The situation was grim, but there was still hope. No matter what Muawiyyah did, Ali would always have Iraq.
“Who can we send to Fars?” Ali asked.
Ali ibn Abi Talib had already lost Egypt to Muawiyyah’s general, Amr ibn Al-As. The Syrians defeated and killed Ali’s governor and stepson, Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. They further desecrated the governor’s body by stuffing it into a donkey carcass and lighting it on fire.
Things had gotten worse as Muawiyyah grew bolder and launched attacks deeper and deeper into Ali’s territory.
These attacks from Muawiyyah weren’t large-scale invasions; they were more like pin pricks meant to distract and confuse Ali.
There were coming so fast, Ali could barely keep up with them.
Six thousand Syrians attacked Ali’s garrison in western Iraq.
After driving them off, another seventeen hundred Syrians attacked Bedouins in northern Arabia.
A few months later, three thousand Syrians plundered territory in central Arabia.
These quick attacks damaged Ali’s reputation. They showed he was weak and could not protect his people.
And on top of all this, he had to deal with yet another rebellion, this time in Fars in eastern Iran.
This was the second uprising in less than a year. Ali knew Muawiyyah was behind the first one. But this new one in Fars was caused by locals taking advantage of the situation.
“Ziyad is just the man for this,” replied Ali’s general. “You should send him to Fars.”
Ali knew who he was talking about. Ziyad had helped put down the first rebellion, instigated by Muawiyyah’s spies in Basra. That he did so with very few casualties was even more impressive.
Ibn Abbas, Ali’s governor of Basra, agreed with the general.
“He is my deputy in Basra,” Ibn Abbas said. “I trust him with the people and the treasury when I am away.”
“He is definitely a man who stands for what he believes in,” the general added. “And when he sets out to do something, he always gets it done.”
Ali did not need any more convincing. “Very well,” he said. “The job is his.”
It is a common misunderstanding that the Muslim Arabs who conquered the lands of Syria and Persia, simply adopted the existing administrative structures of the Romans and Sassanids.
However, modern scholarship brings evidence of something different. It appears the Arabs brought their own financial system out of the deserts, and adapted it to the new empire they held.
This is most clearly evidenced in the Islamic system of taxation.
The Islamic jizya, or “non-Muslim tax”, is often portrayed negatively as a tribute to the conquering Muslims. Certainly, the Quran discusses it in an aggressive tone.
Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have made forbidden, and do not adopt the religion of Truth from those who were given the Scripture, until they give the Jizya willingly and are humbled.
Chapter 9, verse 29.
At its root, the Jizya is simply a tax, similar to the Zakah which is a sort of charitable tax.
However, the Zakah has a spiritual and religious aspect. The root word of Zakah is za-ka-ya, meaning to purify. When Muslims pay Zakah, they’re purifying their wealth.
But since non-Muslims do not share the same beliefs, they can’t be asked to spiritually purify their wealth.
The root word of Jizya is ja-za-ah, meaning to “recompense” or “pay back”. A related phrase that Muslims use is “Jazak-Allah Khair” meaning “May God pay you back with good.”
The Jizya is a tax paying the government back for protection and the services it provides.
Muslim scholars have debated about who should pay the jizya. A minority have proposed that only the People of the Scripture, that is, Christians and Jews, must pay jizya. Others must either convert to Islam or leave the area.
But historically, it has been more common to apply the Jizya to all non-Muslim inhabitants of an area regardless of their faith. The Zoroastrians of Persia paid the Jizya during the time of the Righteous Caliphs. Many centuries later, the Hindus of the Indian subcontinent paid Jizya as well.
The Quran does not specify how much the Jizya should be. Generally, that is left up to the Muslim government to decide.
For the Righteous Caliphs and the rulers of the early Umayyad Dynasty, this system worked well. The Muslims were a ruling minority, and the non-Muslims living under them paid to keep the system running.
But as the Umayyad rulers became more extravagant, this system began to break down. This was further accelerated by the rapid growth of Islam in the Empire.
The Muslims did not remain a minority for long. Over the years, their non-Muslim subjects converted to Islam. When they did, the Umayyads were faced with a problem.
Initially, it was easy to tell who was Muslim and who was not. All of the Arabs were Muslim, and all of the non-Arabs were not.
Therefore, non-Arabs paid Jizya and Arabs paid Zakah.
But this line began to blur as more non-Arabs became Muslim. The government was receiving double the tax income from these non-Arab Muslims.
The new Muslims were religiously obligated to pay Zakah, yet the Umayyad government did not relieve them of the Jizya their Christian and Zoroastrian forefathers used to pay.
And as the Caliphs became more corrupt, they found it impossible to reverse this trend. Their lifestyles required the double-taxation of this new class of Muslim.
Naturally, this frustrated these new Muslims. This discriminatory practice brought social upheaval that would ultimately lead to the downfall of the Umayyads.
Abdullah ibn Amir
Abdullah ibn Amir had many things going for him.
He was a companion of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
He had previous administrative experience.
And he was from Banu Umayyah.
Yet, despite all of these positive factors, things just weren’t going right for him as the governor of Basra.
Abdullah ibn Amir readily admitted this shortcoming.
“I know these people personally,” he lamented. “How can I look a man in the eyes knowing I’ve amputated their brother’s or their father’s hands?”
Caliph Muawiyyah was growing frustrated with the bad reports coming out of Basra.
But it was Abdullah ibn Amir’s bungling of a rebellion in Khurasan that sealed the deal for Muawiyyah.
Khurasan was notoriously difficult to govern and the local tribesman did not pay their taxes willingly. They eventually rebelled and the sub-governor fled to Basra hoping for reinforcements.
Instead, Abdullah ibn Amir, who thought the sub-governor had abandoned the city out of cowardice, had him arrested, flogged, and thrown into prison.
The sub-governor’s family and supporters complained to Muawiyyah who became convinced that Abdullah ibn Amir had to go.
And Muawiyyah knew who he wanted in Basra. But he had to move carefully.
He could not just fire his cousin, who also happened to be a Sahabah, and replace him with some unknown fatherless bastard who used to work for Ali.
Muawiyyah had to be patient. He quietly dismissed Abdullah ibn Amir, and appointed a minor Syrian official to take over as interim governor of Basra.
Just like Muawiyyah planned, the Syrian official proved incapable of managing Basra. Within four months, Muawiyyah dismissed him as well.
Now he was free to appoint the man he really wanted in charge of Basra.
When most people think of the Shariah, or Islamic law, the first thing that comes to mind are harsh, outdated punishments. The most famous example is the amputation of the thief’s hand.
This punishment is mentioned in the Quran.
And the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands, a reward for what they’ve earned and a deterrent from Allah. And Allah is Mighty and Wise.
Chapter 5, verse 38.
There is little doubt that this is a harsh penalty by today’s standards. However, we must remember the law was meant to be a deterrent.
At the time the Quran was revealed to Prophet Muhammad, amputation was a fairly common punishment for stealing. Other forms of punishment for stealing included beating, slavery, and even death.
It is more accurate to think of the Quran as establishing a limit for the punishment of theft.
This becomes more evident when we consider the Arabic word for “punishments,” “Hudood,” has the same root as the word “limit.”
There are several conditions that must be met before amputation is carried out:
- The stolen item must have been secured and put away
- There must be at least two witnesses to the crime
- The value of the stolen item must be above a certain amount
Even with these limitations, the government or judge may choose not to apply that particular punishment. When Syria was struck with famine during the Caliphate of Umar ibn Al-Khattab, he suspended the hudood for stealing.
Finally, not all thefts are treated equally. Contrary to popular opinion, shoplifting and stealing food does not bring amputation. And if the owner of the stolen item gives it to the thief, then the punishment is averted.
Similar to the jizya, the hudood should be considered more of a guideline. Considering the many limitations, most forms of theft would not even qualify for amputation.
Ziyad ibn Abihi
The man Muawiyyah wanted to govern Basra was Ziyad ibn Abihi.
Ziyad ibn Abihi was a red-faced man with a white triangular-shaped beard, and a right eyelid that drooped lower than the left.
Along with Muawiyyah, Amr ibn Al-As, and Mughirah ibn Shuba, Ziyad was known as one of the Four Clever Arabs.
He was famous for three things:
- His outstanding oratory skills
- His ability to manifest order out of abject chaos
- His heavy-handed style of government
Ziyad was born in the town of Taif near Mecca around the same time Prophet Muhammad made the Hijra to Medina. His mother, Sumayyah, was a member of the Thaqif tribe.
He has been known as Ziyad ibn Sumayyah, and later in life, Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. Aisha, the Prophet’s wife, politely called him Ziyad ibn Abihi, or Ziyad the son of his father.
And that is how he is most commonly known today.
Some say his mother was a slave who was impregnated by her master then sold away.
Some say his mother was a prostitute and his father was one of her clients.
Some say his mother was a slave whose owner prostituted her for profit.
Despite his unknown paternal lineage, Ziyad ibn Abihi obtained fairly high government positions. This was a remarkable achievement considering how important lineage and tribal nobility were in Arabia.
Driven by ambition and the need to overcome his scandalous background, Ziyad ibn Abihi worked his way up through the governmental bureaucracies of Caliphs Umar, Uthman, and Ali. He started out as a scribe, and by the time the fighting broke out between Ali and Muawiyyah, he was the finance minister for Basra under Ibn Abbas.
Towards the end of Ali’s reign, a rebellion broke out in Fars, in eastern Persia. Based on Ibn Abbas’ recommendation, Ali made Ziyad the governor of Fars with orders to quell the rebellion.
Ziyad’s performance was legendary. Using a combination of bribes, brutality, and diplomacy, he managed to put down the rebellion in a matter of weeks. Ziyad even strengthened Ali’s position in Fars by reinforcing the main fortress and resuming the flow of tax income back to Kufah.
Ziyad in Persia
After Muawiyyah captured Iraq, he began dismantling Ali’s governmental apparatus. He was not too keen on having Ali’s diehard supporters working in his government.
But Ziyad ibn Abihi did not step down immediately. When Muawiyyah’s forces moved in to occupy Kufah and Basra, Ziyad remained in his secure fortress in Persia.
Muawiyyah sent Mughirah ibn Shuba, the governor of Kufah, to convince Ziyad to pledge allegiance.
Mughirah pleaded with Ziyad and promised him safe passage to Damascus. But Ziyad wouldn’t budge.
Ziyad knew the Caliph could send an army to flush him out, but that would not have been easy. Ziyad’s fortress was hidden deep within the Zagros Mountains over three hundred miles from Basra. Muawiyyah would have to send thousands of soldiers through unfriendly territory and inhospitable terrain.
For the time being, Ziyad was untouchable.
But his family was not. Ziyad received a letter from Muawiyyah’s general, Busr ibn Abi Arta, that his three sons had been imprisoned.
Busr was notorious for hunting down and killing those suspected of being involved with Uthman’s death.
“Respond to Amirul Mumineen,” Busr’s letter said. “Or I will kill your children.” He gave Ziyad a two-week deadline.
Ziyad remained cool despite the threat. “That is exactly what I’d expect from the son of the eater of livers,” he wrote back.
This was a reference to Hind, Muawiyyah’s mother.
During the Battle of Badr, the first major conflict between the Muslims of Medina and the pagan Quraish of Mecca, the Prophet’s uncle, Hamza, killed three members of Hind’s family. To avenge their death, she hired an Abyssinian slave to kill Hamza the next time they met in battle.
In return for killing Hamza, she promised the slave his freedom and gold jewelry.
A year later, Muawiyyah’s father, Abu Sufyan, led an army to Medina in the Battle of Uhud. The Abyssinian slave fulfilled his duty and drove a spear through Hamza’s chest, impaling him to the ground and killing him.
After the battle was over, Hind split open Hamza’s belly, extracted his liver, and took three bites.
Ziyad and Muawiyyah
Ziyad ibn Abihi sent his brother racing to Damascus. He made the ten-day trip in seven days, wearing out two horses in the process.
“This is not what we gave bay’ah to you for!” Ziyad’s brother told Muawiyyah when they met. “The people did not give you their allegiance so you could kill children.”
Muawiyyah reluctantly agreed and wrote a letter ordering Busr to release the children. Ziyad’s brother hurried back to Iraq with Muawiyyah’s orders, arriving just minutes before Busr was to kill them.
Ziyad knew Muawiyyah had not given up and instructed his nephew, a young man named Abdur Rahman, to hide his wealth.
Sure enough, Ziyad soon received word that Abdur Rahman had been arrested by Mughirah ibn Shuba.
At first, Mughirah tried talking Abdur Rahman into revealing the location of Ziyad’s wealth. When that didn’t work, Muawiyyah ordered him to use enhanced interrogation techniques.
Today, we call that torture.
Mughirah covered Abdur Rahman’s face with a silk cloth and poured water over it until the young man passed out.
Mughirah revived him, asked him again about Ziyad’s money, and when he didn’t get an answer, went back to waterboarding.
Abdur Rahman passed out three times before Mughirah was convinced that he did not know anything.
Ziyad held out against Muawiyyah for nearly two years. Finally, Muawiyyah wrote him a letter promising safe passage if they could just talk.
“Why are you making things harder for yourself?” the letter read. “Come to Damascus so we can go over your finances. If you want to join our side, then do so. If not, you’ll be allowed to return to your fortress.”
Ziyad relented and made the long journey to Damascus to meet with Muawiyyah. They wound up talking about much more than finances. Muawiyyah was actually interviewing Ziyad for a job.
Ziyad could tell the mood had changed and adjusted his attitude accordingly. He began addressing Muawiyyah as Amirul Mumineen, and agreed to turn over his wealth. He then asked for permission to settle in Kufah.
Satisfied, Muawiyyah agreed.
In Kufah, Ziyad was one of many out of work, former government officials from Ali’s Caliphate. Most of his wealth had been confiscated and he held no status or authority.
Like many others from Ali’s government, he was forced to pray in congregation at the Mosque every day. This allowed the governor, Mughirah ibn Shuba, to keep an eye on them.
There was one major difference between Ziyad and the others. He had no problem switching allegiances to Muawiyyah.
Ziyad in Basra
There were many reasons why Muawiyyah wanted Ziyad to take over in Basra.
- Ziyad was familiar with Basra having worked there for Umar, Uthman, and Ali.
- Ziyad was not from Banu Hashim, Ali’s clan, so he was much more trustworthy.
- Ziyad had proven his ability to handle rebellion and the Khawarij.
Still, Muawiyyah was not sure if Ziyad would be accepted in Basra. It was bad enough that many would see him as a traitor for switching sides.
But then there was also the issue of Ziyad’s lineage. Would people respect a man who was “The son of his father?”
Muawiyyah figured a way around that obstacle. In 44AH, with Ziyad’s approval, Muawiyyah announced that Ziyad was his half-brother.
Together, they concocted a story that Muawiyyah’s father, Abu Sufyan, had fathered Ziyad outside of wedlock before accepting Islam. Therefore, he should be known as Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan.
The ruse fooled no one. The Banu Umayyah were furious that Muawiyyah would disgrace their family for political gain. It was even worse that his father was not alive to defend himself. Later scholars would criticize Muawiyyah for defiling his father’s legacy with this farce.
Behind his back, Ziyad was still referred to as either The Son of His Father or the Son of Sumayyah.
But for the time being, it served the purpose that was needed.
In Jumada 45AH (July 665), Ziyad ibn Abihi became Muawiyyah’s governor of Basra.
Upon becoming governor, Ziyad delivered a speech laying out his plan to bring stability to Basra. Even when translated into English, his exceptional oratory skills shine through. What follows is an excerpt from that speech.
All praises to Allah for His virtues and blessings. The terrible things which the bold among you commit and the wise among you allow, are extreme ignorance. The young grow up with these crimes and the old do not refrain from them.
It is as if you did not hear the verses of Allah nor read His Book nor heard of His reward for the obedient, nor heard of His punishment for the disobedient.
You have innovated things which were never here before. You frequent the brothels and allow the strong to usurp the weak.
You do not restrain the robbers from prowling at night nor prevent them from attacking by day. You have put kinship before Islam. You give excuses to yourselves and you pardon the thief.
Beware of night-prowling for I will shed the night-prowler’s blood. Beware of the calls of the Days of Ignorance, for I will cut out the tongues of those who call to it.
You have invented new crimes and we have invented new punishments for every crime.
Whoever drowns someone, then I will drown him. Whoever burns someone, then I will burn him. Whoever breaks into a house, then I will break into his heart. Whoever digs up a grave, then I will bury him alive.
Spare me your hands and your tongues and I will spare you my hand and my harm. You are free to hate me, but do not do so openly.
We have become your rulers and protectors. We rule you by the authority of Allah which He has given us. Therefore, you owe us your obedience, and we owe you justice. Pray to Allah for the righteousness of your rulers. They set the example, and so long as you are righteous, then they will be righteous.
By Allah, I have many potential victims from among you. Beware, lest you become one of them.
Ziyad ibn Abihi, was true to his word. Over the next three years, Ziyad would use violence, bribery, and his terrifying police force, the Shurta, to bring order to Basra.
Under Ziyad, the Shurta in Basra had a force of four thousand men. By comparison, the city of Atlanta today only has two thousand police officers.
The Shurta were Ziyad’s eyes and ears. Nothing happened in Basra except Ziyad knew about it.
He arrested people on mere suspicion and punished just to set an example.
When he walked the streets of Basra, he was accompanied by five hundred armed guards carrying clubs, swords, and sticks.
But violence was not his only weapon. He got the nobility and the religious elite of Basra on his side by hiring hundreds of Islamic scholars and Sahaba. They served as advisors, judges, and sub-governors.
Before Ziyad came to Basra, the nights were dangerous because of the criminal element. Now, it was dangerous for a different reason.
Ziyad would delay the night prayer until very late then ordered the Imam to recite the longest chapters from the Quran.
When the prayer was finished, the Shurta would disperse through the city looking to see who was not at the Masjid. Anyone they caught, was killed on the spot.
They were not killed because they did not pray at the Masjid. They were killed because the Khawarij used to plot their rebellions during the night prayers and Ziyad wanted to make sure that could not happen.
One night the Shurta came across a Bedouin who happened to be traveling through Basra. He was brought before Ziyad and questioned as to why he was not at the prayer.
“I arrived at night with my camel but had no place to secure her,” the Bedouin stammered. “I was waiting for the morning to come when the police arrested me.”
“By Allah,” replied Ziyad, “I believe you’re telling the truth. But your death will set a good example for everyone else.”
The Bedouin was dragged away and beheaded.
Ziyad was especially harsh on the Khawarij.
Just before he became governor, two men from Basra began a rebellion proclaiming “Let the Quran decide!” This was the original slogan of the Khawarij during Ali’s time.
They based their rebellion in Ahwaz, about seventy-five miles northeast of Basra. But after hearing of Ziyad’s policies, they thought it best to abandon their plans.
One rebel returned to the city and hid, but it wasn’t long before Ziyad’s policemen flushed him out. The rebel was killed in his home and his body nailed to the door.
Ziyad was a little more merciful with the second rebel. The man was allowed to return to Basra but was warned to never leave the city.
One night, Ziyad was informed the former rebel did not spend the night in his house. The next morning, the man was arrested and quickly executed.
Later, Ziyad ordered the people of Basra to assist in hunting down the Khawarij. He warned that if they did not help, no one would receive their government stipends for an entire year.
This began a mass persecution of anyone suspected of being Khawarij. Khawarij and Khawarij sympathizers were hunted down and killed by the hundreds.
There was one instance when the people of Basra stood up to Ziyad. He once gave an order to execute all of the Zoroastrian priests living in Basra and destroy their temples. Surprisingly, his policemen were blocked by Muslim citizens demanding he respect their tradition of tolerance.
Ziyad’s brutal methods worked.
People began leaving their doors unlocked. If something was dropped in the street, no one would dare touch it. The people stopped being afraid of crime and became afraid of the government.
With stability, came prosperity. Basra’s tax revenue increased, trade improved, and rebellion disappeared.
Muawiyyah was so pleased with Ziyad’s performance, he added Oman and Bahrain to his territory.
When Basra had stabilized, Ziyad began expanding his territory by launching invasions into central Asia.
In 47AH, three years after becoming governor, Ziyad sent armies east into Ghor and Kabul in modern day Afghanistan. He also sent armies north into Bukhara and Samarkand in modern day Uzbekistan.
Unrest in Kufah
Things were different in Kufah, where the Sahaba Mughirah ibn Shuba was the governor. Though he was strict and swift with justice, Mughirah’s administration was not marked by the fear and brutality seen in Basra.
Like most of Muawiyyah’s officials, Mughirah ibn Shuba ended each sermon by praising Uthman and cursing his killers. This cursing would often lead to condemnation of Ali ibn Abi Talib as well.
This did not sit well with everyone.
Hujr ibn Adi had been a commander in Ali’s army and was totally devoted to him. He believed the Caliphate should have stayed with Ali’s family. This marks the early stages of the Shiite belief that the Caliphate was hereditary and should stay with Ahlul Bayt, The People of the House.
However, it should be understood that Hujr ibn Adi wasn’t a Shiite like we know today. He was a Sahaba who simply felt Ali was the true Caliph.
When Ali’s son Hassan abdicated, Hujr ibn Adi gave the bay’ah to Muawiyyah. Though he preferred the Caliphate remain within Ahlul Bayt, he tolerated Muawiyyah and obeyed the leadership.
But Hujr ibn Adi would not tolerate anyone cursing Ali. It was one thing to accept defeat; but quite another to curse the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law.
When Mughirah began condemning Ali, Hujr shouted at him from the audience.
“Old man,” he cried, “fix our rations and stipends! That is your job as governor. We are not here to listen to you curse Ali and praise the criminals!”
Others joined in and before long, Mughirah was engaged in a shouting match with the audience.
“I am the governor!” he yelled at them. “Fear the regime! Fear its wrath and power. The fury of the regime can destroy you many times over!”
Mughirah descended from the pulpit, stormed out the Masjid, and returned to his house. He was met by some of his advisors who were not happy. They felt he should have taken a firmer stance against Hujr ibn Adi.
“Why do you tolerate Hujr’s insolence?” they asked him. “It undermines your authority, and if Muawiyyah ever finds out, he will not be pleased.”
But Mughirah brushed their concerns aside. “I have already killed him,” he said. “Another governor will take over after me, and Hujr will treat that man like he treated me and he will be punished in the worst way.”
Mughirah could sense the end of his life coming soon. “My time draws near,” he continued, “and I do not want to end it by killing the noble people of this city.”
Later that year, a terrible plague swept through Kufah, killing hundreds. As the epidemic intensified, Mughirah ibn Shuba fled the city. After the disease had burned itself out, he returned home hoping the worst had passed.
Unfortunately, Mughirah still contracted the sickness and died in Shaban 50AH (September 670).
After Mughirah’s death, Muawiyyah wrote a letter to Ziyad ordering him to take over Kufah as well. This unprecedented move made Ziyad ibn Abihi the second most powerful man in the empire.
The territory that Ziyad now governed was equal to almost half of the Muslim Empire. This was an area covering seven modern nations.
If anyone thought the additional responsibility would soften Ziyad, they were sorely mistaken.
In his first public address in Kufah, he ascended the pulpit and began praising the people of the city.
“When I was ordered to come to Kufah, I was thinking about bringing two thousand soldiers with me. Then I remembered that you are people of truth who reject falsehood. Thus, I only came with my family.”
Suddenly, a shower of small pebbles was hurled at him. This was followed by more stones and pebbles as the people in the audience heckled and pelted him.
Ziyad remained cool and quietly sat down as the pebbles and stones continued to fly his way. When they died down, he ordered his guards to lock the doors to the Masjid.
Then he stood, placed a chair by the door, sat down again, and said, “I want every one of you to grab the hand of the man who was sitting next to you. And don’t you dare say you don’t know who was sitting next to you.”
He called the audience members up in groups of four. He ordered them to come forward and swear to Allah that none of them had thrown pebbles at him.
Those that swore, were allowed to leave. Those that did not, were told to sit back down.
By the time everyone had been questioned, there were eighty men left in the Mosque. Ziyad ordered his guards to chop off their hands.
“By Allah,” one man said about Ziyad, “we never accused him of lying. Whether he promised us good or evil, he always did it.”
It wasn’t long before Ziyad ibn Abihi and Hujr ibn Adi clashed.
Like Mughirah before him, Ziyad used to praise Uthman and curse Ali ibn Abi Talib after giving a speech.
And just like with Mughirah, Hujr ibn Adi began shouting at him when that happened. By now, Hujr’s supporters had grown in size and courage.
And in typical Ziyad fashion, his response was cool and eloquent.
“Injustice and transgression have fatal consequences. These people,” he said pointing to Hujr and his group, “have gathered for evil purposes. They feel safe with me, so they’ve taken liberties with me. By Allah, if you do not stop, I will cure you with your own medicine. Be careful, Hujr! You have invited a wolf for dinner.”
Hujr ibn Adi would learn that wolves make terrible dinner guests.
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