During Prophet’s last days, at least two people have claimed prophethood
– Had ordered Usamah to take army to Intimidate Byzantine allied Arabs there
– Prophet died and Abu Bakr is chosen as his Caliph, or successor
– Most of Arabia cancels their alliance with Medina and Abu Bakr; only Medina, Mecca, and Taif remain firm
– Usamah returns after hearing of the Prophet’s death, but Abu Bakr sends him back to Syria to complete his mission
– Reasons for rebellion
– False prophets
– Unwilling to pay Zakah
– Dislike of central authority
– Not fully invested in Islam
– Abu Bakr’s five step plan
1. Protect Medina and hold out until Usamah returns with army
2. When Usamah returns divide the army and send them to different parts of Arabian Peninsula
3. Retake central-western Arabia creating a safe zone around Medina
4. Concentrate on the big players (false prophets) and then take on Musailamah
5. When the center’s pacified, focus on smaller rebels in north and south
– First step: Protect Medina and hold out until Usamah returns
– Three tribes united to invade Medina
– Without army, Abu Bakr had to lead the remaining people in Medina himself
– Battle took place 20 miles outside Medina
– Abu Bakr was victorious and gave Medina some breathing room until Usamah returned
– Second Step: When Usamah returns with army, begin recapture of other rebellious areas
– Usamah returned victorious and brought back wealth, slaves, and material
– Now that he had a real army, he divided them up into 11 groups.
– The strongest group went with Khalid Ibn Waleed
– Each group was headed by one of the companions or someone highly trusted by Abu Bakr
– They were commissioned to take their armies to different parts of Arabia and quell the rebels
– Each leader carried a letter from Abu Bakr inviting the rebels to rejoin him peacefully
– Third step: Retake central-western Arabia and create a safe-zone around Medina
– Nearest rebel was Tulayhah Al-Asadi
– Claimed to be a prophet during Muhammad’s final days.
– Belonged to the Bani Asad tribe in central Arabia
– Several other smaller tribes in the area joined him, giving him a fairly large force
– Battle took place in area called Buzakhah
– When KIW arrived, some of the 1500 rebel forces turned against Tulaihah and joined KIW
– KIW challenged him to a duel, but Tulaihah ran away to his tent near rear of forces
– Pretended to wait for revelation as the battle turned in the Muslim’s favor
– Eventually his forces realized he was a fraud, and ran away in defeat. Most of them submitted to KIW
– Tulaihah and his wife fled to Syria while the other tribes capitulated and came back to Islam
– KIW continued to push west through the Najd toward MAK
– Put down rebellions in Ghamrah, Naqrah, and Zafar, before arriving at Butah.
– One of the rebel leaders was named Malik Ibn Nuwairah;
– Used to be a tax collector for the Prophet but rejoiced after his death and returned the zakah he collected
– KIW attacked Butah, defeated the rebels of Banu Tamim and took Malik captive
– Some say he returned the zakah because he thought agreement with Prophet was cancelled
– Asked for water from KIW who ordered men to end his thirst
– Command was misenterpreted and Malik was killed
– After Malik died KIW married his wife
– Some disagreed and broke off from KIW and returned to Medina to report to Abu Bakr
– Case against Malik: He did not make it clear he was with Abu Bakr and was joyful at prophet’s death
– Also made a peace agreement with rebel false prophetess Sajah
– Case for Malik: Did not openly rebel nor take up arms; possible could have thought agreement was over
– Abu Bakr summoned KIW back to Medina but ultimately cleared him of wrongdoing
– KIW returned to the battlefield and headed for the final and biggest threat, Yamamah and MAK
– Sajjah, a false prophetess had married MAK and they combined forces.
– She was intercepted and defeated by KIW before reaching Yamamah. Finished her life in silence.
– While KIW was fighting through central Arabia, MAK had made alliances and had gathered a very large force
– Abu Bakr sent Ikrimah with a light force ahead of KIW to keep MAK guessing; but Ikrimah got impatient and attacked early.
– Ikrimah was defeated.
– Abu Bakr sent another force with companion Shurahbil with same ordes and he also got impatient and was defeated
– MAK had made alliances, signed treaties, had many resources, and his army was now filled with confidence and knew KIW was on the way
– When KIW arrived at Yamamah, MAK had 40000 and KIW had 13K
– The two forces fought with KIW launching various attacks. These hurt MAK but did not break. Both sides retired that night having lost many soldiers
– The next day KIW decided to reorganize fighters according to tribe to inspire confidence
– In the second day of fighting MAK’s forces began to break and they retreated to a walled garden and locked the gate
– Muslims sent Thabit Bin Qais over the wall to unlock the gate.
– Muslims rushed in and a deadly battle in tight confines took place. Came to be known as the garden of death.
– KIW saw it would be very devastating and wanting to end it all quickly, gathered his best fighters and pushed through the mass towards MAK
– KIW’s band got to MAK who was attacked by both Wahshi ibn Harb and Thabit at the same time.
– In Bahrain, to the far east, some tribes apostated while others remained loyal to Abu Bakr. They wound up fighting each other and those loyal to Abu Bakr prevailed
– In Oman in the southeastern part of the peninsula, three of Abu Bakr’s converged and fought against rebels there. Abu Bakr’s forces were also victorious there
– In Mahrah in southern Arabia, the rebellious wound up fighting each other. When arrived arrived, one of them joined them and they both attacked the rebels who were defeated
– In Yemen in southwestern Arabia, there was a previous false prophet named Aswad Ansi rebelled during Prophet’s life and was defeated by a companion named Fairoz
– After the Prophet’s death they rebelled again and drove Muslim government out and persecuted the remaining Muslims civilians
– Abu Bakr’s sent a companion named Muhajir to this region who was outnumbered at first. But he held out against the rebels until Ikrimah joined him from the east
– Together they defeated the main rebeles, captured their leaders and sent them back to Medina where they repented.
– Yemen had rough territory with lots of rebel tribes so more forces were needed to fully pacify this region. Eventually the last holdouts surrendered and all of Yemen was subdued.
– There were a few battles in the northern parts of the Peninsula but these were easily taken care of.
– In less than a year all of the rebels had been defeated.
– The former apostate tribes had to turn in all their weapons and openly declare their dead were in hell while the Muslim dead were in heaven, and forbidden from ever taking part in future Muslim battles
– Abu Bakr had an excellent strategy and KIW and Ikrimah were excellent generals to carry it out.
– Now that the Muslim Empire was reunited Abu Bakr turned his attention towards Syria in the northwest where the Byzantines and Persians in northeast were watching events carefully.
– Tulaihah in Syria until the Muslims captured it and he returned to Islam.